Vocabulary List:

Part I  Cellular Structures and Organelles
  • cell (review)
  • cell theory
  • microscopic
  • cell membrane
  • cytoplasm
  • DNA (review)

  • prokaryotic (review)
  • eukaryotic (review)
  • nucleus
  • organelle (review)
  • unicellular (review)
  • multicellular (review)

  • cell wall
  • cytosol
  • cytoskeleton
  • microtubules
  • microfilaments
  • intermediate filaments

  • gene
  • nucleolus

  • ribosomes (nucleus, free and attached)
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • vesicle
  • Golgi apparatus
  • endomembrane system

  • smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • vacuoles
  • large central vacuole
  • lysosomes

  • mitochondria
  • chloroplasts
  • centrosomes
  • centrioles
  • cilia
  • flagella

Part II  The Cell Membrane and Transport 
  • hydrophilic
  • hydrophobic
  • fluid mosaic model
  • selective permeability

  • passive transport
  • diffusion
  • concentration
  • concentration gradient
  • solution
  • solute
  • solvent
  • diffusion
  • dialysis
  • isotonic
  • hypotonic
  • hypertonic
  • osmosis
  • flaccid
  • crenate
  • plasmolyzed
  • lyse
  • turgid

  • transport proteins
  • channel proteins
  • carrier proteins
  • facilitated diffusion

  • active transport
  • transport protein pumps

  • vesicles
  • endocytosis
  • exocytosis
  • phagocytosis
  • pinocytosis
***************

Part III  The Cell Cycle  

  • cell cycle
  • mitosis
  • cytokinesis
  • Interphase
  • Gap 1
  • Synthesis
  • Gap 2
  • M phase
  • karyokinesis
  • ***************



  • chromosome
  • gene
  • histone
  • chromatin
  • chromatid
  • sister chromatid
  • centromere
  • prophase
  • metaphase
  • anaphase
  • telophase
  • centrosome
  • centriole
  • spindle fiber
  • monad
  • dyad
  • metaphase plate
  • telomere

 

  • growth factor
  • apoptosis
  • cancer
  • tumor
  • benign
  • malignant
  • metastasize
  • carcinogen
  • mitosis (review)
  • asexual reproduction
  • binary fission
  • budding
  • fragmentation
  • vegetative reproduction
  • prokaryote
  • eukaryote
  • unicellular organism
  • multicellular organism
  • tissue
  • organ
  • organ system
  • cell differentiation or cell specialization
  • stem cell

 

Board Notes: 
Part I:  Cell Theory
Part I:  Cell Structures and Organelles

Learning Objectives: 

  • Demonstrate organizational skills such as keeping a daily calendar of assignments and activities and maintaining a notebook of class work.
    • Keep your binder organized and updated. 
  • Apply strategies before, during, and after reading to increase fluency and comprehension (e.g., adjusting purpose, previewing, scanning, making predictions, comparing, inferring, summarizing, using graphic organizers) with increasingly challenging texts. 
    • Use graphic organizers to better understand the difference between cell types.  
    • Improve understanding of material by outlining material presented in class. 
  • Use a variety of appropriate sources (e.g. Internet, scientific journals) to retrieve relevant information; cite references properly. 
    • Know how to evaluate a web site for accuracy, objectivity, and authority
  • Apply active reading, listening, and viewing techniques by taking notes on classroom discussions, lectures, oral and/or video presentations, or assigned at-home reading, and by underlining key passages and writing comments in journals or in margins of texts, where permitted.  
    • Stay on task during class, annotate provided PowerPoint notes and take additional notes during board discussions. 
    • Outline provided materials and assimilate this information into material presented in class. 
  • Apply knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon affixes, inflections, and roots to understand unfamiliar words and new subject area vocabulary in increasingly challenging texts.
    •  Be able to define and correctly spell all vocabulary words.
  • Actively participate in small-group and large-group discussions, assuming various roles.
    • Participate in class discussions  and ask questions when needed on a daily basis.

Part I: Cellular Structures and Organelles

    • What are the three statements of the Cell Theory in order?
    • What are the names of the five scientists accredited with the development of the Cell Theory? 
    • For each scientist list their name, their area of study, explain their major accomplishments that furthered the study of cells and state how they specifically contributed to the development of the theory.
    • Explain the relationship between surface area and volume ratio. 
    • As surface area increases what happens to the volume? 
    • As the volume increases what happens to the amount of surface area?
    • Explain how surface area to volume ratio relates to diffusion and the limitation of cell size
    • Why must cells stay small? 
    • What characteristics do all cells have in common?
  • Analyze the similarities and differences among (a) plant versus animal cells and (b) eukaryotic versus prokaryotic cells.
    • What are the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
    • Which Domains and Kingdoms contain prokaryotic organisms? 
    • Which Domains and Kingdoms contain eukaryotic organisms?
  • Describe the functions of all major cell organelles, including nucleus, ER, RER, Golgi apparatus, ribosome, mitochondria, microtubules, microfilaments, lysomsomes, centrioles, and cell membrane. 
    • Explain the functions of all major cell structures and cell organelles including:  cell walls, cell membranes, cytoplasm including cytosol, nucleus including nucleolus and chromatin, ribosomes, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, transport vesicles, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, large central vacuole, centrosomes and centrioles, cytoskeleton including microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
  • Illustrate how all cell organelles work together by describing the step-by step process of the translation of an mRNA strand into a protein and its subsequent processing by organelles so that the protein is appropriately packaged, labeled, and eventually exported by the cell. 
    • Explain the endomembrane system and how this system produces proteins.  Give a step by step explanation. 
  • Contrast the structure and function of subcellular components of motility (e.g., cilia, flagella, pseudopodia)
    • Describe the structure and function of cilia, flagella, and pseudopodia. 
    • Provide examples of cells having cilia, flagella and pseudopodia

Part II: The Cell Membrane and Transport

  • Explain how the cell membrane maintain homeostasis
    • Diagram and explain the structure of the cell membrane. 
    • What are the functions of the cell membrane? 
    • How does the cell membrane help a cell maintain homeostasis? 
    • Explain, label and describe the Fluid Mosaic Model.  Explain why this name is used to describe a cell membrane. 
  • Explain how the cell membrane controls movement of substances both into and out of the cell and within the cell.
    • Why are cell membranes described as being selectively permeable?
  • Describe and contrast these types of cell transport:  osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.
    • Discuss and explain passive transport. 
    • What are the different types of passive transport? 
    • What structures are used to facilitate passive transport? 
    • Explain the different types of passive transport. 
    • Analyze osmosis in models and real life examples; show directional movement of water and solutes. 
    • Draw beakers of water containing cells and show directional movement of water and solutes based on water and solute concentrations. 
    • Correctly apply the terms hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic in models and real life examples; show directional movement of solutes and solvents. 
    • What are the different types of membrane proteins embedded in the cell membrane?  What are their functions?
    • Compare and contrast different types of membrane proteins.
    • Discuss, explain and give an example of osmoregulation.  
    • Explain the sodium-potassium pump.  Provide a step by step explanation. 
    • Explain and provide examples of endocytosis and exocytosis. 
    • Explain and provide examples of phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. 
    • Compare and contrast passive transport and active transport. 
Part III: The Cell Cycle
    • Draw a diagram of the Cell Cycle and explain each area.  
    • What are the 3 parts of Interphase? - explain each stage. 
    • What is the M phase?  - explain the possible parts of this phase.
    • What is Mitosis? 
    • Why does Mitosis happen?
  • Describe the basic process of mitosis. 
    • What are the phases of Mitosis? - be able to draw and explain what is happening in each phase as well as recognize visual representation of each phase
    • What five things happen during Prophase?  Be able to draw or recognize a diagram/slide showing prophase.  
    • What happens during Metaphase?  Be able to draw or recognize a diagram/picture of metaphase. 
    • What happens during Anaphase?  Be able to draw or recognize a diagram/picture of anaphase. 
    • What happens during Telophase?  Be able to draw or recognize a diagram/picture of telophase.  
    • What happens during Cytokinesis?  Be able to draw or recognize a diagram/picture of cytokinesis.
    • Be able to define, identify, label, diagram and explain all terminology used to discuss the cell cycle.  
    • Describe when and why the genetic material of a cell will replicate? 
    • Differentiate between chromatin and chromosomes.
    • Differentiate between monads and dyads. 
    • What is a chromosome?  How many chromosomes do humans have?
    • What is a gene?  How many genes do humans have?  Where are genes located?
  • Revise, refine, and proofread own and other's writing, using appropriate tools to find strengths and weaknesses and to seek strategies for improvement (using good writing methods). 
    • State, elaborate, use an example and draw a connection when answering open - ended questions. 
  • Identify and clarify scientific research questions and design experiments.
  • Safely use laboratory equipment and techniques when conduction scientific investigations. 
  • Manipulate variables in experiments using appropriate procedures (e.g. controls, multiple trials)
  • Collect, organize, and analyze data accurately and precisely (e.g. using scientific techniques and mathematics in experiments)
  • Interpret results and draw conclusions, revising hypothesis as necessary and/or formulating additional questions or explanations.
  • Use mathematics to enhance the scientific inq2uiry process (e.g., choosing appropriate units of measurement, graphing and manipulating experimental data)
  • Distinguish between fact and opinion, basing judgments on evidence and reasoning.
  • Write and speak effectively to present and explain scientific results, using appropriate terminology and graphics. 
  • Use appropriate essay-test taking and timed-writing strategies that address and analyze the questions.  
  • Demonstrate familiarity with test formats and test administration procedures to increase speed and accuracy. 
    • Complete tests within permitted time limits. 

Online Resources:

Part I  Cell Structures and Organelles  

In Class Poster Project:  The Cell Cycle

  1. Using all resources (notes, reading packets, outlines) research each stage/phase of the cell cycle.
  2. Make an enlarged picture of each stage/phase using poster board and the supplies available to you.
    • Include Interphase, M Phase, Gap 1, Synthesis, Gap 2, Gap 0, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis
  3. Use correct terminology - spelling counts
  4. Include all processes, activities and relevant information for each of these stages/phases. 
  5. Include which form of the following pairs is associated with each stage/phase
    • chromatin/chromosome
    • monad/dyad
    • chromatid/sister chromatids
    • number of chromosomes in a human cell
  6. Include a labels diagram of a dyad