Unit 5 Learning Objectives: 

  • Demonstrate organizational skills such as keeping a daily calendar of assignments and activities and maintaining a notebook of class work.
    • Keep your binder organized and updated. 
  • Apply strategies before, during, and after reading to increase fluency and comprehension (e.g., adjusting purpose, previewing, scanning, making predictions, comparing, inferring, summarizing, using graphic organizers) with increasingly challenging texts. 
    • Use graphic organizers to better understand each of the four macromolecules;  make a study guide for each macromolecule.  
    • Improve understanding of material by outlining material presented in class. 
  • Use a variety of appropriate sources (e.g. Internet, scientific journals) to retrieve relevant information; cite references properly. 
  • Apply active reading, listening, and viewing techniques by taking notes on classroom discussions, lectures, oral and/or video presentations, or assigned at-home reading, and by underlining key passages and writing comments in journals or in margins of texts, where permitted.  
    • Stay on task during class, annotate provided PowerPoint notes and take additional notes during board discussions. 
    • Outline provided materials and assimilate this information into material presented in class. 
  • Apply knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon affixes, inflections, and roots to understand unfamiliar words and new subject area vocabulary in increasingly challenging texts.
    •  Be able to define and correctly spell all vocabulary words.
  • Actively participate in small-group and large-group discussions, assuming various roles.
    • Participate in class discussions  and ask questions when needed on a daily basis.
  • Explain the difference between organic and inorganic compounds. 
    • Differentiate between organic and inorganic compounds.
    • Understand that all life on earth is carbon based.
    • Describe the chemical nature of carbon and how this influences the structural support of organic compounds.
    • Understand the structural versatility of carbon.
    • Explain the process of polymerization.
    • Understand condensation and hydrolysis reactions
    • Be able to list the 4 types of macromolecules.
  • Describe the general structure and function(s), including common functional groups, of monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, carbohydrate, fatty acids, glycerol, glycerides, lipids, amino acids, dipeptides, polypeptides, proteins, and nucleic acids. 
Carbohydrates
    • Identify the elemental composition of carbohydrates?
    • What is the ratio of atoms in carbohydrates?  Explain the significance of this ratio in identifying carbohydrates when compared to lipids. 
    • What type of functional groups are found in carbohydrates?
    • What are the main functions of carbohydrates?
    • What are the monomers of carbohydrates called?
    • What are 5 examples of monosaccharides?  (names of molecules)
    • What types of food products contain monosaccharides?  Which monosaccharides do they contain?
    • What are short chains of two monomers of carbohydrates called?
    • What type of covalent bonds are found between 2 monomer of carbohydrates?
    • What are 2 examples of disaccharides?  (names of molecules) What monosaccharides make up these disaccharides? 
    • What types of food products contain disaccharides?  Which disaccharides do they contain? 
    • What are short chains of 3 - 20 monosaccharides called?
    • What are some physiological functions of these molecules?
    • What are the polymers of carbohydrates called?
    • What are some examples of polysaccharides?
    • What polysaccharides are used for immediate energy?
    • What polysaccharides are used for structural support?
    • What polysaccharide provides energy for animals? plants? 
    • What polysaccharide provides structural support for animals?  plants? 
    • What types of food products contain polysaccharides?  
    • What types of tests determine the presence of carbohydrates?  
Lipids
    • What is the elemental composition of lipids?
    • How can you differentiate between carbohydrates and lipids when looking at a molecule or given a chemical formula?
    • What are the 6 main types of lipids (molecules)?
    • What are the main functions of lipids?
    • What type of covalent bond can be found between a glycerol molecule and fatty acid tails?
    • Are lipids polar or non-polar?  How does this effect their interaction with water?
    • Explain the structure of triglycerides.
    • What is the main function of triglycerides.
    • Compare saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (number of hydrogen atoms, physical state at room temperature, healthy or unhealthy, single or double bonds between carbon atoms, ease broken down by body, sources found in nature, food examples)
    • What are the main functions of waxes?  Provide examples. 
    • What are the main functions of steroids?  Provide examples. 
    • Explain the molecular structure of triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes, and steroids.
    • If given a variety of molecules, be able to identify and label a triglyceride, phospholipid, wax, and steroid.
    • What types of tests determine the presence of lipids?
Nucleic Acids
    • What is the elemental composition of nucleic acids?
    • What are the 3 main functions of nucleic acids?
    • What, specifically, are the functions of DNA?
    • What, specifically, are the functions of RNA?
    • What are the monomers of nucleic acids?
    • What are the polymers of nucleotides?
    • What are two examples of nucleic acids?
    • What 3 molecules make up a nucleotide?
    • What is a pentose sugar?  List 2 examples. 
    • What is the structural difference between these 2 sugars? 
    • What is a nitrogenous base?  List 5 examples. 
    • What two categories can nitrogenous bases be divided into?
    • List 2 examples of purines.
    • List 3 examples of pyrimidines.
    • How do purines and pyrimidines differ regarding their molecular structure?
    • What nitrogenous bases can be found in DNA?
    • What nitrogenous bases can be found in RNA?
    • Where is DNA found?
    • Where is RNA found?
    • What are the 3 types of RNA?
    • Is DNA a double of single strand?  Is RNA a double or single strand?
    • Compare (and contrast) DNA and RNA. 
Proteins
    • What is the elemental composition of proteins?
    • What are the functions of proteins?
    • Where can proteins be found in organisms?
    • Where can proteins be found in our diet?
    • What are the monomers of proteins?
    • What are short chains of proteins called?
    • What type of covalent bonds can be found between the monomers of proteins?
    • What are the polymers of amino acids?
    • What is the basic structure of an amino acid?
    • What differentiates amino acids from one another?
    • How many amino acids exist?
    • What are the 8 essential amino acids and why are the called essential?
    • Explain the 4 levels of structure in a protein. 
    • What is formed by a strand of one or more polypeptides?
    • What is protein denaturation? 
    • What is the effect of denaturation on proteins? 
    • What are some causes of protein denaturation? 
    • What types of tests determine the presence of proteins?
    • Be able to define and correctly spell all vocabulary words. 
  • Revise, refine, and proofread own and other's writing, using appropriate tools to find strengths and weaknesses and to seek strategies for improvement (using good writing methods).
  • Identify and clarify scientific research questions and design experiments.  
  • Safely use laboratory equipment and techniques when conduction scientific investigations. 
  • Manipulate variables in experiments using appropriate procedures (e.g. controls, multiple trials)
  • Collect, organize, and analyze data accurately and precisely (e.g. using scientific techniques and mathematics in experiments)
  • Interpret results and draw conclusions, revising hypothesis as necessary and/or formulating additional questions or explanations.
  • Use mathematics to enhance the scientific inquiry process (e.g., choosing appropriate units of measurement, graphing and manipulating experimental data)
  • Write and speak effectively to present and explain scientific results, using appropriate terminology and graphics.
  • Use appropriate essay-test taking and timed-writing strategies that address and analyze the questions.  
  • Demonstrate familiarity with test formats and test administration procedures to increase speed and accuracy. 
    • Complete tests within permitted time limits. 

Vocabulary:

  • Organic
  • Inorganic
  • Macromolecules
  • Monomer
  • Polymer
  • Polymerization
  • Synthesis (review term)
  • Dehydration synthesis
  • Condensation reaction
  • Hydrolysis
  • Functional groups
  • Hydroxyl group

  • Carbohydrate
  • Carbonyl group
  • Monosaccharide
  • Disaccharide
  • Oligosaccharide
  • Polysaccharide
  • Glycosidic linkage
  • Benedict's solution
  • Lugol's solution

  • Lipids
  • Phosphate group
  • Ester linkage
  • Glycerol
  • Glycerides
  • Hydrocarbon chains
  • Fatty acid tails
  • Triglyceride
  • Saturated fats
  • Unsaturated fats
  • Monounsaturated fats
  • Polyunsaturated fats
  • Phospholipids
  • Hydrophobic tails
  • Hydrophilic heads
  • Phosopholipid bilayer
  • Waxes
  • Steroid
  • Carotenoid
  • Vitamin
  • Sudan III Test

 

  • Nucleic acids
  • Phosphodiester bonds
  • Nucleotides
  • Pentose sugar
  • Nitrogenous base
  • Adenine
  • Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • Thymine
  • Uracil
  • Purines
  • Pyrimidines
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Ribonucleic acid

  • Protein
  • Peptide bond
  • Amino group
  • Carboxyl group
  • Sulfhydryl group
  • Amino acid
  • Dipeptide
  • Polypeptide
  • Essential amino acids

  • Primary protein structure
  • Secondary protein structure
  • Tertiary protein structure
  • Quaternary protein structure
  • Denaturation
  • Biuret solution

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