Classroom Resources


Online Resources

Eight Characteristics of Life 

  • Bozeman Science: Biology Paul Andersen introduces the topic of Biology. He covers each of the four main ideas that were developed by the College Board. These ideas revolve around the concepts of evolution, free energy, information and systems.
  • Bozeman Science:  Elements of a Feedback Loop Paul Andersen defines the major elements of feedback loops. The receptors and effectors both sense and respond to changes in their environment. The following examples are used to illustrate the importance of feedback loops in maintaining homeostasis: speed signs, thermostats, thermoregulation, and blood glucose maintenance.

Bozeman Science:  Positive and Negative Feedback Loops Paul Andersen explains how feedback loops allow living organisms to maintain homeostasis. He uses thermoregulation in mammals to explain 

Hierarchy of Life

  • Classzone  Use this site to review the basics of this unit.  Choose high school science, Kentucky and the green biology book for Kentucky.  Although this site does not review all of the required information it does have much of the basics covered.
  • Hierarchy of Life examples
  • Bozeman Science:  The Hierarchy of Life Paul Andersen explains how biology is ordered in the hierarchy of life. He first of all describes how emergent properties appear as you move to more inclusive systems. The then describes life at the following levels; atom, molecule, macromolecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organisms, population, community, ecosystem, biome and finally biosphere.
  • Crash Course Video:  Ecology - Rules for Living on Earth Hank introduces us to ecology - the study of the rules of engagement for all of us earthlings - which seeks to explain why the world looks and acts the way it does. The world is crammed with things, both animate and not, that have been interacting with each other all the time, every day, since life on this planet began, and these interactions depend mostly on just two things... Learn what they are as Crash Course Biology takes its final voyage outside the body and into the entire world.
  • Crash Course Video:  Speciation:  Of Ligers & Men  Hank explains speciation - the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise - in terms of finches, ligers, mules, and dogs.
  • Crash Course Video:  Taxonomy:  Life's Filing System Hank tells us the background story and explains the importance of the science of classifying living things, also known as taxonomy.
  • Bozeman Science:  Classification of Life Paul Andersen explains the current classification system that we use in Biology. He starts with a brief history of taxonomy. He explains how the goal of classification is to reflect evolutionary relationships. He then explains how each individual organism is classified according to genus and species.
Bozeman Science: Phylogenetics Paul Andersen discusses the specifics of phylogenetics. The evolutionary relationships of organisms are discovered through both morphological and molecular data. A specific type of phylogenetic tree, the cladogram, is also covered.
  • Bozeman Science:  Cladograms  Paul Andersen shows you how to construct a cladogram from a group of organisms using shared characteristics. He also discusses the process of parsimony in cladogram construction. He then explains how modern cladograms are constructed and walks through a cladogram of primates.
  • Bozeman Science:  The Three Domains of Life Paul Andersen starts with a brief description of the history of life. He then discusses the seven characteristics of life and why viruses are not alive. He then describes the three domains in the current classification system and explains why eukaryotes are more closely related to members of the Archaea domain.
  • Crash Course Video:  Old and Odd:  Archaea, Bacteria and Protists  Hank veers away from human anatomy to teach us about the (mostly) single-celled organisms that make up two of the three taxonomic domains of life, and one of the four kingdoms: Archaea, Bacteria, and Protists. They are by far the most abundant organisms on Earth, and are our oldest, oddest relatives.
  • Bozeman Science: Archaeabacteria  In this video Paul Andersen describes the defining characteristics of members in the domain archaebacteria. He starts with a brief description of the phylogeny of this group. He then describes the major characteristics on an archaea, such as differences in the phospholipids. He explains how they reproduce through binary fission and finishes with a discussion of archaebacteria diversity.
  • Bozeman Science: Eubacteria  Paul Andersen describes the defining characteristics of the domain Eubacteria. He begins with a quick description of the phylogeny of bacteria and horizontal gene transfer. He then surveys the structures of a bacteria; nucleoid region, capsule, pilli, cell wall with peptidoglycan, flagella. He describes the differing morphologies and metabolism in different bacteria. He describes how bacteria can be Gram positive or Gram negative. He finishes with a brief discussion of quorum sensing
Domain Eukarya
  • Bozeman Science:  Eukarya  Paul Andersen discusses the defining characteristics of the members of Domain Eukarya. He starts with a brief description of the phylogeny of life on earth. He then discusses the major characteristics of eukaryotic cells. He explains how eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells using endosymbiosis and infolding. He finally discusses the metabolism and reproduction found in eukaryotes.
Domain Eukarya - Kingdom


Bozeman Science:  Protists   Paul Andersen surveys organisms in the protists. He reviews the diversity found within the domain Eukarya and explains that the Kindgom Protista is simple a junk drawer for organisms that don't fit elsewhere.
Domain Eukarya - Kingdom Fungi
Bozeman Science:  Fungus  Paul Andersen surveys the Kingdom Fungi. He starts with a brief description of the fungi phylogeny. He describes some of the major characteristics of fungi; heterotrophy, cell walls of chitin, hyphae, sessile. He describes the characteristics of five major phyla of fungi, ascomycota, basidiomycota, chytridiomycota, glomeromycota and zygomycota.
Bozeman Science:  Viruses  Paul Andersen describes the important characteristics of viruses. He starts with a brief description of origin theories. He then describes the two characteristics of all viruses; genetic information and protein coats. He also describes how some viruses use specialized envelopes to gain entry to their host cells. He also explains the lytic and lysogenic reproductive cycles.

Bozeman Science: Viral Reproduction  Paul Andersen explains how viruses reproduce using the lytic cycle. He also shows how viruses can pick up new genetic material and how retroviruses (like HIV) can enter into the lytic cycle. He also describes the lysogenic cycle and how it increases the virulence of bacteria.