Vocabulary

Part I  Chromosomes and the Process of Meiosis
  • heredity
  • variation
  • genes
  • genome
  • asexual reproduction
  • clone
  • sexual reproduction
  • fertilization
  • somatic cell
  • germ cell
  • gametes (sex cells)
  • haploid
  • diploid
  • autosome
  • sex chromosome
  • karyotype
  • homologous chromosomes
  • mitosis (review from unit 6)
  • meiosis
  • crossing over
  • genetic linkage
  • gameotogenesis
  • sperm
  • egg
  • polar body
Part II Mendelian Genetics
  • purebred
  • cross
  • law of segregation
  • allele
  • homozygous
  • heterozygous
  • genome
  • genotype
  • phenotype
  • dominant
  • recessive
  • Punnett square
  • monohybrid cross
  • testcross
  • dihybrid cross
  • law of independent assortment
  • probability 
Part III  Extending Mendelian Genetics
  • carrier
  • sex-linked gene
  • X chromosome inactivation
  • incomplete dominance
  • codominance
  • polygenic trait
  • pedigree

Learning Targets: 

  • Demonstrate organizational skills such as keeping a daily calendar of assignments and activities and maintaining a notebook of class work.
    • Keep your binder organized and updated. 
  • Apply strategies before, during, and after reading to increase fluency and comprehension (e.g., adjusting purpose, previewing, scanning, making predictions, comparing, inferring, summarizing, using graphic organizers) with increasingly challenging texts. 
    • Improve understanding of material by outlining material presented in class. 
  • Use a variety of appropriate sources (e.g. Internet, scientific journals) to retrieve relevant information; cite references properly. 
  • Apply active reading, listening, and viewing techniques by taking notes on classroom discussions, lectures, oral and/or video presentations, or assigned at-home reading, and by underlining key passages and writing comments in journals or in margins of texts, where permitted.  
    • Stay on task during class, annotate provided PowerPoint notes and take additional notes during board discussions. 
    • Outline provided materials and assimilate this information into material presented in class. 
  • Apply knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon affixes, inflections, and roots to understand unfamiliar words and new subject area vocabulary in increasingly challenging texts.
    • Be able to define and correctly spell all vocabulary words.
  • Actively participate in small-group and large-group discussions, assuming various roles. 
    • Participate in class discussions  and ask questions when needed on a daily basis.
  • Describe the basic process of meiosis.
  • Identify and explain Mendel's law of segregation and law of independent assortment.
  • Explain how the process of meiosis reveals the mechanism behind Mendel's conclusions about segregation and independent assortment on a molecular level
  • Define and provide an example of the following:  genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, incompletely dominant alleles, homozygous, heterozygous, and carrier. 
  • Explain sex-linked patterns of inheritance in terms of some genes being absent from the smaller Y chromosome, and thus males (XY) having a difference chance of exhibiting certain traits than do females (XX). 
  • Construct and interpret Punnett squares and pedigree charts (e.g., calculate and predict phenotypic and genotypic ratios and probabilities). 
  • Infer parental genotypes and phenotypes from offspring data presented in pedigree charts and from the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of offspring. 
  • Revise, refine, and proofread own and others writing, using appropriate tools to find strengths and weaknesses and to seek strategies for improvement (using good writing methods). 
    • State, elaborate, use an example and draw a connection when answering open - ended questions.  
  • Safely use laboratory equipment and techniques when conducting scientific investigations. 
  • Manipulate variables in experiments using appropriate procedures (e.g. controls, multiple trials). 
  • Collect, organize, and analyze data accurately and precisely (e.g. using scientific techniques and mathematics in experiments)
  • Interpret results and draw conclusions, revising hypothesis as necessary and/or formulating additional questions or explanations.
  • Use mathematics to enhance the scientific inquiry process (e.g., choosing appropriate units of measurement, graphing and manipulating experimental data)
  • Write and speak effectively to present and explain scientific results, using appropriate terminology and graphics. 
  • Use appropriate essay-test taking and timed-writing strategies that address and analyze the questions.  
  • Demonstrate familiarity with test formats and test administration procedures to increase speed and accuracy. 
    • Complete tests within permitted time limits. 

 

Online Resources:

CrashCourse:  Heredity
Hank and his brother John discuss heredity via the gross example of relative ear wax moistness.
Bozeman ScienceGenetics Preview
Paul Andersen previews the information in the genetics unit. He defines the central dogma of biology and explains how DNA creates an RNA transcript that is used to translate proteins. He differentiates between mitosis and meiosis. He also explains how Mendelian genetics differs from the current understanding of genetics. He ends with a brief description of gene regulation.

CrashCourse:  Meiosis

Hank gets down to the nitty gritty about meiosis, the special type of cell division that is necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms.

Table of Contents
1) Homologous Chromosome Pairs 2:10
2) Primary Oocytes 3:30
3) Primary Spermatocytes 3:30
4) Meiosis 2:59
5) Interphase I 4:04
6) Prophase I 4:37
a) Crossover 5:05
b) Recombination 5:05
7) Metaphase I 7:53
8) Anaphase I 8:05
9) Telophase I 8:19
10) Prophase II 8:57
11) Metaphase II 9:23
12) Anaphase II 9:28
13) Telophase II 9:32

Bozeman ScienceGenetics
Paul Andersen reviews the concepts discovered by Gregor Mendel.
Bozeman ScienceMeiosis
Paul Andersen explains how the process of meiosis produces variable gametes. He starts with a brief discussion of haploid and diploid cells. He compares and contrasts spermatogenesis and oogenesis. He explains how each person is different due to independent assortment, crossing over and random fertilization.
Bozeman ScienceDiploid vs. Haploid Cells
In this video Paul Andersen explains the difference between diploid and haploid cells. He starts with a brief description of the central dogma and how genes code for proteins. He then uses the phenotype of red hair to explain that humans are diploid creatures. He discriminates between diploid somatic cells and haploid sex cells. He finishes with a brief description of different life cycles dominated by haploid and diploid individuals.
Bozeman SciencePhases of Meiosis
In this video Paul Andersen explains the major phases of meiosis including: interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, interphase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. He explains how variation is created in the next generation through meiosis and sexual reproduction.
Bozeman ScienceMitosis and Meiosis Simulation
Mr. Andersen uses chromosome beads to simulate both mitosis and meiosis. A brief discussion of gamete formation is also included.
Bozeman ScienceA Beginner's Guide to Punnett Squares
Paul Andersen introduces the Punnett Square as a a powerful tool in genetic analysis. He tries to address major misconceptions that students have when use a Punnett Square. He gives a number of examples of monohybrid crosses and one example of a dihybrid cross. The square is a simple tool that uses the outcome of meiosis to determine possible offspring in a cross.
Bozeman Science:  Chromosomal Inheritance
In this video Paul Anderson describes genetics at the chromosomal level.  He begins with a simple monohybrid cross as viewed through Mendelian genetics and then shows how genes are distributed through meiosis to possible gametes.  This is followed by a dihybrid cross and a cross that shows gene linkage. 
Bozeman Science:  Mendelian Genetics
Paul Andersen explains simple Mendelian genetics. He begins with a brief introduction of Gregor Mendel and his laws of segregation and independent assortment. He then presents a number of simple genetics problems along with their answers. He also explains how advances in genetic knowledge may lead to ethical and privacy concerns.
Bozeman Science:  Genotypes and Phenotypes
Paul Andersen explains how changes in the genotype of an individual can affect the phenotype. He begins with genotype:phenotype::letters:story analogy. He explains how mutations can be neutral, beneficial or harmful. He also explains how mistakes in the cell cycle can lead to disorder, sterility or new species.
Bozeman Science:  Blood Types
Paul Andersen explains the importance of blood types in blood transfusions. He starts with a brief discussion of blood antigens and antibodies. He describes how the ABO differs from the Rh blood type. He shows you how to solve simple genetic problems using Punnett squares. He then talks about the percentage distribution of the different types and the problems that may result during pregnancy.