Vocabulary:

  • Stem
  • Twig
  • Terminal Bud
  • Bud Scales
  • Terminal Bud Scale Scars
  • Naked Buds
  • Imbricate Scales
  • Valvate Scales
  • Lateral/Axillary Buds
  • Leaf Scars
  • Vascular Bundle Scars
  • Stipules
  • Stipular Scars
  • Lenticels
  • pith
  • lammas shoots
  • thorns
  • spines
  • prickles
  • bark
  • node
  • internode

Learning Objectives:


  • Be able to identify diagnostic features of a twig.
  • Be able to diagram and label the discussed characteristics of a twig; including but not limited to terminal buds, lateral buds, bud scales, leaf scars, bundle scars, terminal bud scale scars, lenticels, stipules, and stipular scars. 
  • Be able to determine the presence of scales and type of scales if present
  • Be able to determine arrangement from a twig.
  • Be able to list, describe and identify pith shapes and types.
  • Be able to explain lammas shoot development.
  • Be able to describe and identify thorns, spines and prickles. 
  • Be able to identify characteristics of bark.
  • Be able to list the functions of bark.